Software Engineering and Testing


It’s hard to remember a world without blogs. Originally a sort of online journal full of mundane personal updates, web logs have morphed into an extremely powerful form of communication.
They were once shunned by the mainstream — now they are the mainstream.
_

 The story I’m living, these days, is about competence and I think most people speaking at testing conferences are not competent enough. A lot of what’s talked about at testing conferences is the muttering of idiots. By idiot, I mean functionally stupid people: people who choose not to use their minds to find excellent solutions to important problems, but instead speak ritualistically and uncritically about monsters and angels and mathematically invalid metrics and fraudulent standards and other useless or sinister tools that are designed to amaze and confuse the ignorant.
I want to see at least 50% of people speaking about testing to be competent. That’s my goal. I think it is achievable, but it will take a lot of work. We are up against an entrenched and powerful interest: the promoters-of-ineptness (few of whom realize the damage they do) who run the world and impose themselves on our craft.
Why are there so many idiots and why do they run the world? The roots and dynamics of idiocracy are deep. It’s a good question but I don’t want to go into it here and now.
There are important challenges to being a remote tester, though. The main technical problem, in my experience, is acquiring and configuring the product to test. Getting up to speed fast benefits from being onsite. The main social problem is trust. Hiring a remote tester, especially one who’s supposed to be high powered, is a little like hiring a therapist. In my experience, developers feel more sensitive about a well-paid, high status outsider poking at their work, than they do about an internal tester who probably will disappear in a few weeks.
Then there’s communication. Despite all the tools for modern communication, we haven’t yet developed a culture of remote interaction that lets us use those tools effectively. Even though I’m always on Skype, and people can see I’m on Skype, they still ask permission to call me on Skype! And I also feel nervous about calling other people on Skype. They might be annoyed with me. I do use GoToMeeting, and that helps a lot. Kevin Daron and I have been collaboratively writing, recently, using it. We like it.
Finally, there is one big logistical problem: availability. You can call me up and have me test for you. But, being a fully independent consultant, my time is chopped up. I have a week here and a few days there, usually. This is the main reason I go in for short-term consulting and coaching. Unless a rich client comes along and induces me to clear my schedule, I can’t afford to have only that one client.
Now, I will try to give you a S3 idea on this topic, not galaxy S3, it is the idea that a mentor give to his students to understand the problems.
SIMPLE
STRAIGHT
SOLID

This S3 idea will allow you to understand the logic about Testing.

Hello everyone, though it has been a long time to back here and missed a lot of things ,hope it won’t cut serious,  but still visual that response is stubborn everywhere .  Pleased to see an excellent response and appreciation on my blog and website, I got many feedback and suggestions on blog, mail, Facebook every time .crossing over many more visitors in these days. Thank you all for appreciating it.
I am telling you the truth why I am hitting Google or many search engines on remarkable views.
It is only and only possible because of you people, thank you so much for your appreciation, I will keep writing till my last breath for you all.
God bless…





1. Introduction (SE).
2. SDLC (Software development life cycle).
3. Software Models.
4. Software Testing.  
5. Levels of testing.
6. Types of testing.
7. Testing Prototypes.
8. Testing V&V.
9. Advantages of software testing.
10. Contact.

 

The notion of ‘software engineering’ was first proposed in 1968 at a conference held to discuss what was then called the ‘software crisis’ (Naur and Randell, 1969). It became clear that individual approaches to program development did not scale up to large and complex software systems. These were unreliable, cost more than expected, and were delivered late.

Throughout the 1970's and 1980's, a variety of new software engineering techniques and methods were developed, such as structured programming, information hiding and object-oriented development. Tools and standard notations were developed and are now extensively used.


Lots of people write programs. People in business write spreadsheet programs to simplify their jobs, scientists and engineers write programs to process their experimental data, and hobbyists write programs for their own interest and enjoyment.
However, the vast majority of software development is a professional activity where software is developed for specific business purposes, for inclusion in other devices, or as software products such as information systems, CAD systems, etc. Professional software, intended for use by someone apart from its developer, is usually developed
by teams rather than individuals. It is maintained and changed throughout its life.
Software engineering is intended to support professional software development, rather than individual programming. It includes techniques that support program specification, design, and evolution, none of which are normally relevant for personal software development. To help you to get a broad view of what software engineering is about, I have summarized some frequently asked questions.
Many people think that software is simply another word for computer programs.
However, when we are talking about software engineering, software is not just the programs themselves but also all associated documentation and configuration data that is required to make these programs operate correctly. A professionally developed software system is often more than a single program. The system usually consists of a number of separate programs and configuration files that are used to set up
these programs. It may include system documentation, which describes the structure of the system; user documentation, which explains how to use the system, and websites for users to download recent product information.
This is one of the important differences between professional and amateur software development. If you are writing a program for yourself, no one else will use it and you don’t have to worry about writing program guides, documenting the program design, etc. However, if you are writing software that other people will use and other engineers will change then you usually have to provide additional information
as well as the code of the program.

//According to wiki:

Software engineering is the study and an application of engineering to the designdevelopment, and maintenance of software.
Typical formal definitions of software engineering are:
·         "research, design, develop, and test operating systems-level software, compilers, and network distribution software for medical, industrial, military, communications, aerospace, business, scientific, and general computing applications."
·         "the systematic application of scientific and technological knowledge, methods, and experience to the design, implementation, testing, and documentation of software";
·         "the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software".
·         "an engineering discipline that is concerned with all aspects of software production";
·         and "the establishment and use of sound engineering principles in order to economically obtain software that is reliable and works efficiently on real machines.

The three Ps: People, Product and Process.
People are a very important aspect of software engineering and software systems. People use the system being developed, people design the system, people build the system, people maintain the system, and people pay for the system. Software engineering is as much about the organization and management of people as it is about technology. There are typically two types of software product:

Generic products: These are stand-alone systems that are produced by a development organization and sold in the open market to any customer who wants to buy it.
Bespoke (customized) products: These are systems that are commissioned by a specific customer and developed specially by some contractor to meet a special need.
Most software expenditure is on generic products by most development effort is on be spoke systems.
The trend is towards the development of bespoke systems by integrating generic components (that must themselves be interoperable). This requires two of the non-functional properties (one of the ‘ileitis’) mentioned earlier: compos ability and interoperability.
The software process is a structured set of activities required to develop a software system:
Specification
Design
Validation
Evolution
These activities vary depending on the organization and the type of system being developed.
There are several different process models and the correct model must be chosen to match the organization and the project.
Let’s now look more deeply at the different types of software process.

2. SDLC (Software development life cycle):
Any product development can be expected to proceed as an organized process that usually includes the following phases:
·       Planning / Specification
·       Design
·       Implementation
·       Evaluation
Software development cycle 

Stage 1: Planning and Requirement Analysis

Requirement analysis is the most important and fundamental stage in SDLC. It is performed by the senior members of the team with inputs from the customer, the sales department, market surveys and domain experts in the industry. This information is then used to plan the basic project approach and to conduct product feasibility study in the economical, operational, and technical areas.
Planning for the quality assurance requirements and identification of the risks associated with the project is also done in the planning stage. The outcome of the technical feasibility study is to define the various technical approaches that can be followed to implement the project successfully with minimum risks.

Stage 2: Defining Requirements

Once the requirement analysis is done the next step is to clearly define and document the product requirements and get them approved from the customer or the market analysts. This is done through .SRS. . Software Requirement Specification document which consists of all the product requirements to be designed and developed during the project life cycle.

Stage 3: Designing the product architecture

SRS is the reference for product architects to come out with the best architecture for the product to be developed. Based on the requirements specified in SRS, usually more than one design approach for the product architecture is proposed and documented in a DDS - Design Document Specification.
This DDS is reviewed by all the important stakeholders and based on various parameters as risk assessment, product robustness, design modularity , budget and time constraints , the best design approach is selected for the product.
A design approach clearly defines all the architectural modules of the product along with its communication and data flow representation with the external and third party modules (if any). The internal design of all the modules of the proposed architecture should be clearly defined with the minutest of the details in DDS.

Stage 4: Building or Developing the Product

In this stage of SDLC the actual development starts and the product is built. The programming code is generated as per DDS during this stage. If the design is performed in a detailed and organized manner, code generation can be accomplished without much hassle.
Developers have to follow the coding guidelines defined by their organization and programming tools like compilers, interpreters, debuggers etc are used to generate the code. Different high level programming languages such as C, C++, Pascal, Java, and PHP are used for coding. The programming language is chosen with respect to the type of software being developed.

Stage 5: Testing the Product

This stage is usually a subset of all the stages as in the modern SDLC models, the testing activities are mostly involved in all the stages of SDLC. However this stage refers to the testing only stage of the product where products defects are reported, tracked, fixed and retested, until the product reaches the quality standards defined in the SRS.

Stage 6: Deployment in the Market and Maintenance

Once the product is tested and ready to be deployed it is released formally in the appropriate market. Sometime product deployment happens in stages as per the organizations. business strategy. The product may first be released in a limited segment and tested in the real business environment (UAT- User acceptance testing).
Then based on the feedback, the product may be released as it is or with suggested enhancements in the targeting market segment. After the product is released in the market, its maintenance is done for the existing customer base.

3. Software Models:

There are various software development life cycle models defined and designed which are followed during software development process. These models are also referred as "Software Development Process Models". Each process model follows a Series of steps unique to its type, in order to ensure success in process of software development.
Following are the most important and popular SDLC models followed in the industry:
·        Waterfall Model
·        Iterative Model
·        Spiral Model
·        V-Model
·        Big Bang Model
The other related methodologies are Agile Model, RAD Model, Rapid Application Development and Prototyping Models. The most widely used model is Waterfall and Spiral.
Providing a link which explains these models in detail:



 4. Software Testing:  
I hope you have got idea about software engineering, now discussing testing in software engineering.
Software testing is an investigation process to check the software against requirements gathered from users and system specifications. Testing is conducted at the phase level in software development life cycle or at module level in program code. Software testing comprises of Validation and Verification.
Now some basic difference between V&V:
S.N.
Verification
Validation
1
Verification addresses the concern: "Are you building it right?"
Validation addresses the concern: "Are you building the right thing?"
2
Ensures that the software system meets all the functionality.
Ensures that the functionalities meet the intended behavior.
3
Verification takes place first and includes the checking for documentation, code, etc.
Validation occurs after verification and mainly involves the checking of the overall product.
4
Done by developers.
Done by testers.
5
It has static activities, as it includes collecting reviews, walkthroughs, and inspections to verify software.
It has dynamic activities, as it includes executing the software against the requirements.
6
It is an objective process and no subjective decision should be needed to verify a software.
It is a subjective process and involves subjective decisions on how well a software works.

\\ According to wiki:

Software testing is an investigation conducted to provide stakeholders with information about the quality of the product or service under test. Software testing can also provide an objective, independent view of the software to allow the business to appreciate and understand the risks of software implementation. Test techniques include the process of executing a program or application with the intent of finding software bugs (errors or other defects).
It involves the execution of a software component or system component to evaluate one or more properties of interest. In general, these properties indicate the extent to which the component or system under test:
·         meets the requirements that guided its design and development,
·         responds correctly to all kinds of inputs,
·         performs its functions within an acceptable time,
·         is sufficiently usable,
·         can be installed and run in its intended environments, and
·         Achieves the general result its stakeholder’s desire.

5. Levels of testing:

There are four levels of testing:
·       Unit testing
·       Integration testing
·       System testing
·       Acceptance testing.
Unit Testing is a level of the software testing process where individual units/components of a software/system are tested. The purpose is to validate that each unit of the software performs as designed.
Integration Testing is a level of the software testing process where individual units are combined and tested as a group. The purpose of this level of testing is to expose faults in the interaction between integrated units.
System Testing is a level of the software testing process where a complete, integrated system/software is tested. The purpose of this test is to evaluate the system’s compliance with the specified requirements.
Acceptance Testing is a level of the software testing process where a system is tested for acceptability. The purpose of this test is to evaluate the system’s compliance with the business requirements and assess whether it is acceptable for delivery.
 6. Types of testing:
        There are 3 types of software testing:
  •     White box testing.
  •      Black box testing.
  •           Grey box testing.

Criteria
Black Box Testing
White Box Testing
Definition
Black Box Testing is a software testing method in which the internal structure/ design/ implementation of the item being tested is NOT known to the tester
White Box Testing is a software testing method in which the internal structure/ design/ implementation of the item being tested is known to the tester.
Levels Applicable To
Mainly applicable to higher levels of testing: Acceptance
System Testing
Mainly applicable to lower levels of testing: Unit
Integration Testing
Responsibility
Generally, independent Software Testers
Generally, Software Developers
Programming Knowledge
Not Required
Required
Implementation Knowledge
Not Required
Required
Basis for Test Cases
Requirement Specifications
Detail Design


\\ According to wiki:
White-box testing (also known as clear box testing, glass box testing, transparent box testing and structural testing) tests internal structures or workings of a program, as opposed to the functionality exposed to the end-user. In white-box testing an internal perspective of the system, as well as programming skills, are used to design test cases. The tester chooses inputs to exercise paths through the code and determine the appropriate outputs. This is analogous to testing nodes in a circuit, e.g. in-circuit testing (ICT).
While white-box testing can be applied at the unitintegration and system levels of the software testing process, it is usually done at the unit level. It can test paths within a unit, paths between units during integration, and between subsystems during a system–level test. Though this method of test design can uncover many errors or problems, it might not detect unimplemented parts of the specification or missing requirements.
Techniques used in white-box testing include:
·         API testing – testing of the application using public and private APIs (application programming interfaces)
·         Code coverage – creating tests to satisfy some criteria of code coverage (e.g., the test designer can create tests to cause all statements in the program to be executed at least once)
·         Fault injection methods – intentionally introducing faults to gauge the efficacy of testing strategies
·         Mutation testing methods
·         Static testing methods
Code coverage tools can evaluate the completeness of a test suite that was created with any method, including black-box testing. This allows the software team to examine parts of a system that are rarely tested and ensures that the most important function points have been tested. Code coverage as a software metric can be reported as a percentage for:
·         Function coverage, which reports on functions executed
·         Statement coverage, which reports on the number of lines executed to complete the test
·         Decision coverage, which reports on whether both the True and the False branch of a given test has been executed

100% statement coverage ensures that all code paths or branches (in terms of control flow) are executed at least once. This is helpful in ensuring correct functionality, but not sufficient since the same code may process different inputs correctly or incorrectly.
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Black-box testing treats the software as a "black box", examining functionality without any knowledge of internal implementation. The testers are only aware of what the software is supposed to do, not how it does it. Black-box testing methods include: equivalence partitioningboundary value analysisall-pairs testingstate transition tablesdecision table testing, fuzz testingmodel-based testinguse case testing, exploratory testing and specification-based testing.
*******************************************************
Gray Box Testing is a software testing method which is a combination of Black Box Testing method and White Box Testing method. In Black Box Testing, the internal structure of the item being tested is unknown to the tester and in White Box Testing the internal structure in known. In Gray Box Testing, the internal structure is partially known. This involves having access to internal data structures and algorithms for purposes of designing the test cases, but testing at the user, or black-box level.
Gray Box Testing is named so because the software program, in the eyes of the tester is like a gray/ semi-transparent box; inside which one can partially see.

EXAMPLE:
An example of Gray Box Testing would be when the codes for two units/ modules are studied (White Box Testing method) for designing test cases and actual tests are conducted using the exposed interfaces (Black Box Testing method).
LEVELS APPLICABLE TO:
Though Gray Box Testing method may be used in other levels of testing, it is primarily useful in Integration.
SPELLING:
Note that Gray is also spelt as Grey. Hence Grey Box Testing and Gray Box Testing mean the same.
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Other testing types:

Compatibility testing:

A common cause of software failure (real or perceived) is a lack of its compatibility with other application software, operating systems (or operating system versions, old or new), or target environments that differ greatly from the original (such as a terminal or GUI application intended to be run on the desktop now being required to become a web application, which must render in a web browser). For example, in the case of a lack of backward compatibility, this can occur because the programmers develop and test software only on the latest version of the target environment, which not all users may be running. This result in the unintended consequence that the latest work may not function on earlier versions of the target environment, or on older hardware that earlier versions of the target environment was capable of using. Sometimes such issues can be fixed by proactively abstracting operating system functionality into a separate program module or library.

Smoke and sanity testing:

Sanity testing determines whether it is reasonable to proceed with further testing.
Smoke testing consists of minimal attempts to operate the software, designed to determine whether there are any basic problems that will prevent it from working at all. Such tests can be used as build verification test.

Regression testing:

Regression testing focuses on finding defects after a major code change has occurred. Specifically, it seeks to uncover software regressions, as degraded or lost features, including old bugs that have come back. Such regressions occur whenever software functionality that was previously working, correctly, stops working as intended. Typically, regressions occur as an unintended consequence of program changes, when the newly developed part of the software collides with the previously existing code. Common methods of regression testing include re-running previous sets of test-cases and checking whether previously fixed faults have re-emerged. The depth of testing depends on the phase in the release process and the risk of the added features. They can either be complete, for changes added late in the release or deemed to be risky, or be very shallow, consisting of positive tests on each feature, if the changes are early in the release or deemed to be of low risk. Regression testing is typically the largest test effort in commercial software development,due to checking numerous details in prior software features, and even new software can be developed while using some old test-cases to test parts of the new design to ensure prior functionality is still supported.

Acceptance testing:

Acceptance testing can mean one of two things:
1.   A smoke test is used as an acceptance test prior to introducing a new build to the main testing process, i.e. before integration or regression.
2.   Acceptance testing performed by the customer, often in their lab environment on their own hardware, is known as user acceptance testing (UAT). Acceptance testing may be performed as part of the hand-off process between any two phases of development.

Alpha testing:

Alpha testing is simulated or actual operational testing by potential users/customers or an independent test team at the developers' site. Alpha testing is often employed for off-the-shelf software as a form of internal acceptance testing, before the software goes to beta testing.

Beta testing:

Beta testing comes after alpha testing and can be considered a form of external user acceptance testing. Versions of the software, known as beta versions, are released to a limited audience outside of the programming team known as beta testers. The software is released to groups of people so that further testing can ensure the product has few faults or bugs. Beta versions can be made available to the open public to increase the feedback field to a maximal number of future users and to deliver value earlier, for an extended or even infinite period of time (perpetual beta).

Functional vs non-functional testing:

Functional testing refers to activities that verify a specific action or function of the code. These are usually found in the code requirements documentation, although some development methodologies work from use cases or user stories. Functional tests tend to answer the question of "can the user do this" or "does this particular feature work."
Non-functional testing refers to aspects of the software that may not be related to a specific function or user action, such as scalability or other performance, behavior under certain constraints, or security. Testing will determine the breaking point, the point at which extremes of scalability or performance leads to unstable execution. Non-functional requirements tend to be those that reflect the quality of the product, particularly in the context of the suitability perspective of its users.

Destructive testing:

Destructive testing attempts to cause the software or a sub-system to fail. It verifies that the software functions properly even when it receives invalid or unexpected inputs, thereby establishing the robustness of input validation and error-management routines. Software fault injection, in the form of fuzzing, is an example of failure testing. Various commercial non-functional testing tools are linked from the software fault injection page; there are also numerous open-source and free software tools available that perform destructive testing.

Software performance testing:

Performance testing is generally executed to determine how a system or sub-system performs in terms of responsiveness and stability under a particular workload. It can also serve to investigate measure, validate or verify other quality attributes of the system, such as scalability, reliability and resource usage.
Load testing is primarily concerned with testing that the system can continue to operate under a specific load, whether that be large quantities of data or a large number of users. This is generally referred to as software scalability. The related load testing activity of when performed as a non-functional activity is often referred to as endurance testing. Volume is a way to test software functions even when certain components (for example a file or database) increase radically in size. Stress testing is a way to test reliability under unexpected or rare workloads. Stability testing (often referred to as load or endurance testing) checks to see if the software can continuously function well in or above an acceptable period.
There is little agreement on what the specific goals of performance testing are. The terms load testing, performance testing, scalability testing, and volume testing, are often used interchangeably.
Real-time software systems have strict timing constraints. To test if timing constraints are met, real-time testing is used.

Usability testing:

Usability testing is to check if the user interface is easy to use and understand. It is concerned mainly with the use of the application.

Accessibility testing:

Accessibility testing may include compliance with standards such as:
·         Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
·         Section 508 Amendment to the Rehabilitation Act of 1973
·         Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)

Security testing:

Security testing is essential for software that processes confidential data to prevent system intrusion by hackers.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) defines this as a "type of testing conducted to evaluate the degree to which a test item, and associated data and information, are protected to that unauthorized persons or systems cannot use, read or modify them, and authorized persons or systems are not denied access to them."

Internationalization and localization:

The general ability of software to be internationalized and localized can be automatically tested without actual translation, by using pseudo localization. It will verify that the application still works, even after it has been translated into a new language or adapted for a new culture (such as different currencies or time zones).
Actual translation to human languages must be tested, too. Possible localization failures include:
·         Software is often localized by translating a list of strings out of context, and the translator may choose the wrong translation for an ambiguous source string.
·         Technical terminology may become inconsistent if the project is translated by several people without proper coordination or if the translator is imprudent.
·         Literal word-for-word translations may sound inappropriate, artificial or too technical in the target language.
·         UnTranslated messages in the original language may be left hard coded in the source code.
·         Some messages may be created automatically at run time and the resulting string may be ungrammatical, functionally incorrect, misleading or confusing.
·         Software may use a keyboard shortcut which has no function on the source language's keyboard layout, but is used for typing characters in the layout of the target language.
·         Software may lack support for the character encoding of the target language.
·         Fonts and font sizes which are appropriate in the source language may be inappropriate in the target language; for example, CJK characters may become unreadable if the font is too small.
·         A string in the target language may be longer than the software can handle. This may make the string partly invisible to the user or cause the software to crash or malfunction.
·         Software may lack proper support for reading or writing bi-directional text.
·         Software may display images with text that was not localized.
·         Localized operating systems may have differently named system configuration files and environment variables and different formats for date and currency.

Development testing:

Development Testing is a software development process that involves synchronized application of a broad spectrum of defect prevention and detection strategies in order to reduce software development risks, time, and costs. It is performed by the software developer or engineer during the construction phase of the software development lifecycle. Rather than replace traditional QA focuses, it augments it. Development testing aims to eliminate construction errors before code is promoted to QA; this strategy is intended to increase the quality of the resulting software as well as the efficiency of the overall development and QA process.
Depending on the organization's expectations for software development, Development Testing might include static code analysis, data flow analysis, metrics analysis, peer code reviews, unit testing, code coverage analysis, traceability, and other software verification practices.

A/B testing:

A/B testing is basically a comparison of two outputs, generally when only one variable has changed: run a test, change one thing, run the test again, compare the results. This is more useful with more small-scale situations, but very useful in fine-tuning any program. With more complex projects, multivariant testing can be done.

Concurrent testing:

In concurrent testing, the focus is more on what the performance is like when continuously running with normal input and under normal operation as opposed to stress testing, or fuzz testing. Memory leak is more easily found and resolved using this method, as well as more basic faults.

Conformance testing or type testing:

In software testing, conformance testing verifies that a product performs according to its specified standards. Compilers, for instance, are extensively tested to determine whether they meet the recognized standard for that language.
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7. Testing Prototypes:

Prototype Testing is conducted with the intent of finding defects before the website goes live. Online Prototype Testing allows seamlessly to collect quantitative, qualitative, and behavioral data while evaluating the user experience.

·       Test Cases.

·       Test suites.

·       Test Script.

·       Test Plan.

8. Testing V&V:

Verification: Have we built the software right? (i.e., does it implement the requirements).

Validation: Have we built the right software? (i.e., do the deliverables satisfy the customer).

Before stating Review, Walkthrough and inspection why not we do understand static and dynamic testing and how these three are divided in to these two.
So let’s have a look on Static and Dynamic Testing.
  • Static Testing v/s Dynamic Testing
Static testing is done basically to test the software work products, requirement specifications, test plan , user manual etc. They are not executed, but tested with the set of some tools and
processes. It provides a powerful way to improve the quality and productivity of software development.
Dynamic Testing is basically when execution is done on the software code as a technique to detect defects and to determine quality attributes of the code. With dynamic testing methods,
software is executed using a set of inputs and its output is then compared to the the expected results.
  • Static Review and its advantages
Static Review provides a powerful way to improve the quality and productivity of software development to recognize and fix their own defects early in the software development process.
Nowadays, all software organizations are conducting reviews in all major aspects of their work including requirements, design, implementation, testing, and maintenance.
Advantages of Static Reviews:-
1. Types of defects that can be found during static testing are: deviations from standards, missing requirements, design defects, non-maintainable code and inconsistent interface specifications.
2. Since static testing can start early in the life cycle, early feedback on quality issues can be established, e.g. an early validation of user requirements and not just late in the life cycle during
acceptance testing.
3. By detecting defects at an early stage, rework costs are relatively low and thus a relatively cheap improvement of the quality of software products can be achieved.
4. The feedback and suggestions document from the static testing process allows for process improvement, which supports the avoidance of similar errors being made in the future.
  •  Roles and Responsibilities in a Review:
There are various roles and responsibilities defined for a review process. Within a review team, four types of participants can be distinguished: moderator, author, scribe, reviewer and
manager. Let’s discuss their roles one by one:-
1. The moderator: The moderator (or review leader) leads the review process. His role is to determine the type of review, approach and the composition of the review team. The moderator also
schedules the meeting, disseminates documents before the meeting, coaches other team members, paces the meeting, leads possible discussions and stores the data that is collected.
2. The author: As the writer of the ‘document under review’, the author’s basic goal should be to learn as much as possible with regard to improving the quality of the document. The author’s
task is to illuminate unclear areas and to understand the defects found.
3. The scribe/ recorder: The scribe (or recorder) has to record each defect found and any suggestions or feedback given in the meeting for process improvement.
4. The reviewer: The role of the reviewers is to check defects and further improvements in accordance to the business specifications, standards and domain knowledge.
5. The manager : Manager is involved in the reviews as he or she decides on the execution of reviews, allocates time in project schedules and determines whether review process objectives
have been met or not.
  • Phases of a formal Review:
A formal review takes place in a piecemeal approach which consists of 6 main steps. Let’s discuss about these phases one by one.
1. Planning
The review process for a particular review begins with a ‘request for review’ by the author to the moderator (or inspection leader). A moderator is often assigned to take care of the scheduling (dates, time, place and invitation) of the review. The project planning needs to allow time for review and rework activities, thus providing engineers with time to thoroughly participate in reviews. There is an entry check performed on the documents and it is decided that which documents are to be considered or not. The document size, pages to be checked,composition of review team, roles of each participant, strategic approach are decided into planning phase.
2. Kick-Off
The goal of this meeting is to get everybody on the same page regarding the document under review. Also the result of the entry and exit criteria are discussed. Basically, During the kick-off meeting, the reviewers receive a short introduction on the objectives of the review and the documents. Role assignments, checking rate, the pages to be checked, process changes and possible other questions are also discussed during this meeting. Also, the distribution of the document under review, source documents and other related documentation, can also be done during the kick-off.

3. Preparation
In this phase, participants work individually on the document under review using the related documents, procedures, rules and checklists provided. The individual participants identify
defects, questions and comments, according to their understanding of the document and role. Spelling mistakes are recorded on the document under review but not mentioned during the
meeting. The annotated document will be given to the author at the end of the logging meeting. Using checklists during this phase can make reviews more effective and efficient.
4. Review Meeting
This meeting typically consists of the following elements:-
-logging phase
-discussion phase
-decision phase.
During the logging phase the issues, e.g. defects, that have been identified during the preparation are mentioned page by page, reviewer by reviewer and are logged either by the author or by a scribe. This phase is for just jot down all the issues not to discuss them in detail. If an issue needs discussion, the item is logged and then handled in the discussion phase. A detailed discussion on whether or not an issue is a defect is not very meaningful, as it is much more efficient to simply log it and proceed to the next one.
The issues classified as discussion items will be handled during discussion phase. Participants can take part in the discussion by bringing forward their comments and reasoning. The moderator also paces this part of the meeting and ensures that all discussed items either have an outcome by the end of the meeting, or are defined as an action point if a discussion cannot be solved during the meeting. The outcome of discussions is documented for future reference.
At the end of the meeting, a decision on the document under review has to be made by the participants, sometimes based on formal exit criteria. The most important exit criterion is the average number of critical and major defects found per page. If the number of defects found per page exceeds a certain level, the document must be reviewed again, after it has been reworked. If the document complies with the exit criteria, the document will be checked during follow-up by the moderator or one or more participants. Subsequently, the document can leave or exit the review process.
5. Rework
Based on the defects detected and improvements suggested in the review meeting, the author improves the document under review. In this phase the author would be doing all the rework to ensure that defects detected should fixed and corrections should be properly implied.Changes that are made to the document should be easy to identify during follow-up, therefore the author has to indicate where changes are made.
6. Follow-Up
After the rework, the moderator should ensure that satisfactory actions have been taken on all logged defects, improvement suggestions and change requests. If it is decided that all
participants will check the updated document, the moderator takes care of the distribution and collects the feedback. In order to control and optimize the review process, a number of
measurements are collected by the moderator at each step of the process. Examples of such measurements include number of defects found; number of defects found per page, time spent
checking per page, total review effort, etc. It is the responsibility of the moderator to ensure that the information is correct and stored for future analysis.

  • Types of Review:
1. Walkthrough
A walkthrough is conducted by the author of the ‘document under review’ who takes the participants through the document and his or her thought processes, to achieve a common
understanding and to gather feedback. This is especially useful if people from outside the software discipline are present, who are not used to, or cannot easily understand software
development documents. The content of the document is explained step by step by the author, to reach consensus on changes or to gather information. The participants are selected from different departments and backgrounds If the audience represents a broad section of skills and disciplines, it can give assurance that no major defects are ‘missed’ in the walk-through. A walkthrough is especially useful for higher-level documents, such as requirement specifications and architectural documents.
The specific goals of a walkthrough are:-
• to present the document to stakeholders both within and outside the software discipline, in order to gather information regarding the topic under documentation.
• To explain and evaluate the contents of the document.
• To establish a common understanding of the document.
• To examine and discuss the validity of proposed solutions and the possible alternatives.
2. Technical review
A technical review is a discussion meeting that focuses on technical content of a document. it is led by a trained moderator, but also can be led by a technical expert. Compared to inspections,
technical reviews are less formal and there is little or no focus on defect identification on the basis of referenced documents. The experts that are needed to be present for a technical review
can be architects, chief designers and key users. It is often performed as a peer review without management participation.
The specific goals of a technical review are:
• evaluate the value of technical concepts and alternatives in the product and project environment.
• establish consistency in the use and representation of technical concepts.
• ensuring at an early stage, that technical concepts are used correctly;
• inform participants of the technical content of the document.
3. Inspection
Inspection is the most formal review type. It is usually led by a trained moderator (certainly not by the author).The document under inspection is prepared and checked thoroughly by the
reviewers before the meeting, comparing the work product with its sources and other referenced documents, and using rules and checklists. In the inspection meeting the defects found are
logged. Depending on the organization and the objectives of a project, inspections can be balanced to serve a number of goals.
The specific goals of an Inspection are:
• help the author to improve the quality of the document under inspection.
• remove defects efficiently, as early as possible.
• improve product quality, by producing documents with a higher level of quality.
• create a common understanding by exchanging information among the inspection participants.

9. Advantages of software testing:

1.Fast

As manual testing consumes a great deal of time in both the process of software development as well as during the software application testing, automated tools are a faster option as long as the scripts which need to be done are standard and non complex.

2.Reliability

Automation of test script execution eliminates the possibility of human error when the same sequence of actions is repeated again and again. Remember this can be really important as you would be astonished to learn just how many test defects raised are in fact caused by tester error. This particularly happens when the same boring test scripts have to be run over and over again as well as when, at the opposite spectrum, really complex testing has to be done.

3.Comprehensive

Automated testers might contain a suite of tests that would help in testing each and every feature in the application. This means that chance of missing out key parts of testing is unlikely to occur. You might think this is unlikely to happen in reality, but I have managed a project where in fact a key part of functionality was overlooked by the test team.

4. Re-usability

The test cases can be used in various versions of the software. Not only will your project management stakeholders be very grateful for the reduced project time and cost, but it will certainly help you when estimating.

5. Programmable

One can program the test automation software to pull out elements of the software developed which otherwise may not have been uncovered. Hence this should make your testing even more thorough, something you may not be so keen on when defect after defect is raised as a result!


*Source for writing this blog:

1. Google

2. Wikipedia

3. Tutorial point

4. David Varnon Software engineering.

5. Melsatar Software methodologies.


10. Contact:

LinkedIn: http://in.linkedin.com/pub/sourav-poddar/6b/542/a30
or mail me at
*Need your suggestions and feedback, so that I can improve my way and ideas for coming blogs and hope that you appreciate it J
Thank YOU!!!
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